Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, plays a central role in the homeostatic
regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium and potassium levels. When dysregulated, aldosterone is pathogenic and contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and kidney diseases.
Aldosterone is part of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Primary hyperaldosteronism is characterized by overproduction of aldosterone or in a result of excessive renin secretion. On the other hand, secondary hyperaldosteronism is due to overactivity of renin-angiotensin system.
The ratio of renin to aldosterone is an effective screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism related to adrenal adenomas. An ACTH stimulation test can help in determining the cause of hypoaldosteronism with low aldosterone response indicating a primary aldosteronism, while a large response indicates a secondary hypoaldosteronism.
FLOMASS® Free Cortisol / Cortisone in Urine
Cortisol is a hormone synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal glands and Cortisone is its inactive metabolite. Cortisol and Cortisone are useful markers for the diagnosis of mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid excess, adrenal congenital hyperplasia (CAH) and adrenal insufficiency.
Furthermore, Cortisol increases in Cushing’s syndrome, decreases in Addison’s disease and can be associate with cardiovascular disease, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Urinary free Cortisol and Cortisone is a good indicator of free Cortisol and Cortisone concentrations in serum and plasma. Their simultaneous measurement is very useful for the therapy monitoring.
FLOMASS® Free Cortisol / Cortisone in Saliva
Interest in salivary matrix is rapidly increasing because, in addition to useful metabolic information, it can be collected through a simple, non-invasive method and without medical supervision. Cortisol and Cortisone are steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. Cortisol and Cortisone are useful markers for the evaluation of mineralcorticoid or glucocorticoid excess, adrenal congenital hyperplasia (CAH) and adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, salivary cortisol increases in Cushing’s syndrome, decrease in Addison’s disease and can be associate with cardiovascular disease, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.
The evaluation of salivary Cortisol and Cortisone is a good indicator of free Cortisol and Cortisone concentrations, because they are not linked to transport proteins, in serum and plasma. For this reason, they are at very low concentrations in the saliva samples (about 5 times lower than plasma and serum). The present method using LC-MS/MS allows the simultaneous quantification of salivary Cortisol and Cortisone in a fast highly sensitive and specific way.
FLOMASS® Antibiotics in Serum
Amikacin, Gentamicin, Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Linezolid are antibiotics with a narrow therapeutic range, so the difference between minimum effective concentration and toxic level is very close. Above the toxic concentration, troublesome adverse effects can occur and lead to serious consequences.
Below the minimum effective concentration, a selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is promoted, and there is the risk of ineffective antibiotic treatment.
Moreover, the metabolism of these drugs can show high individual variation. For all these reasons, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is highly recommended to check circulating drug concentration in order to avoid side effects and to obtain desired therapeutic effects.
FLOMASS® Drugs of Abuse in Urine
Our panel of drug of abuse in urine includes: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDA, MDE, MDMA, MBDB, Cocaine, Benzoylecgonine, Ecgoninmethylester, Coca ethylene, Morphine, 6- MAM, Codeine, Dihydrocodeine, THC-COOH, Methadone, EDDP, Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Ketamine, Norketamine, 4-ANPP.
FLOMASS® Drugs of Abuse in Whole Blood
Our panel of drug of abuse in whole blood includes: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDA, MDE, MDMA, MBDB, Cocaine, Benzoylecgonine, Ecgoninmethylester, Coca ethylene, Morphine, 6-MAM, Codeine, Dihydrocodeine, THC, THC-OH, THC-COOH, Methadone, EDDP, Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Ketamine.
FLOMASS® Paracresylsulphate / Indoxilsulphate
Uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive increase of some compounds called uremic toxins, normally excreted by kidneys in healthy individuals. Para-CresylSulphate (PCS) and IndoxylSulphate (IXS) have been founded increased in subjects with end stage renal disease (ESRD) as well several authors have shown the association between serum level of both total and free PCS and IXS.
PCS and IXS come from intestinal bacterial fermentation. Clinical studies, investigating the role of diet and probiotics/prebiotics, show positive effects on the prevention of the evolution of chronic renal failure thanks to the decrease of uremic toxins. Moreover, appropriate dialysis treatment also helps purify the sulphate metabolites.
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